Rannsóknir á TASER

TASER er eitt mest rannsakaða valdbeitingartæki sem löggæslustofnanir nota. Í nýlegri rannsókn sem framkvæmd var af UK Defense Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL), var kannað hvaða áhrif TASER hefur á mannshjartað. Niðurstöðurnar leiddu í ljós að ólíklegt sé að tækið hafi yfir höfuð nokkur áhrif á hjartað.

 
Dr. Mark Kroll, stjórnarformaður læknisfræði- og vísindaráðs TASER International segir: "Samkvæmt þessari nýju bresku rannsókn er öryggisstuðull Advanced TASER M26 70:1 og 240:1 fyrir TASER X26 sem er mun hærri stuðull en fyrir mörg algeng verkjalyf sem seld eru án lyfseðils í dag. En sum þeirra hafa öryggisstuðulinn 15:1".

Fyrir utan allan þann fjölda rannsókna sem liggur fyrir um virkni tækijanna á líkamann, hafa milljónir reynt tækið á sjálfum sér. Allar rannsóknir á virkni tækisins á líkamann eru opinberar og auðvelt að nálgast þær. Bresk stjórnvöld létu gera umfangsmikla úttekt á tækinu áður en ákveðið var að taka tækið í notkun þar í landi. Sú umfangsmikla rannsókn staðfesti allar fyrri rannsóknir sem sýndu fram á öryggi og áreiðanleika tækisins.

Áhrif TASER á hjartagangráða hefur einnig verið rannsökuð. Niðurstaða þeirra rannsókna hefur leitt í ljós að hjartagangráðar þola 800 sinnum meiri spennu en TASER gefur frá sér.

Rannsóknum á TASER tækninni fjölgar stöðugt. Nú þegar liggja fyrir rúmlega 300 rannsóknir á öryggi tækjanna. Um áttatíu prósent þeirra eru óháðar.

1. Standards and Audits Unit Law Enforcement Branch. Provincial Guidelines for the Use of Conducted Energy Weapons. Alberta Solicitor General and Public Security. July 2009.
Date added to the index 7/31/2009.
2. W P Bozeman, D G Barnes, Jr, J E Winslow, III, J C Johnson, III, C H Phillips, and R Alson. Immediate cardiovascular effects of the Taser X26 conducted electrical Weapon. Emerg. Med. J. 2009; 26(8): p. 567?570. Date added to index 7/23/2009.
3. Strote J, Hutson HR. Conducted electrical weapon injuries must be more broadly considered. Ann Emerg Med. Aug 2009;54(2):310?311; author reply 311?312. Date added to index 7/21/2009.
4. Gary M Vilke, Christian M Sloane, Amanda Suffecool, et al. Physiologic Effects of the TASER After Exercise. Acad Emerg Med. July 10 2009. Date added to index 7/20/2009.
5. James R Jauchem, Ronald L Seaman, and Curtis M Klages. Physiological effects of the TASER((R)) C2 conducted energy weapon. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 14 Jul 2009. Date added to index 7/20/2009.
6. Smith MR, Kaminski RJ, Alpert GP. A Multi?Method Evaluation of Police Use of Force Outcomes: Final Report To The National Institute of Justice. University of South Carolina TASER ECD Three?Year Study. NIJ. June 30, 2009. Date added to index 6/30/2009.
7. Ho JD, Dawes DM, Cole JB, Hottinger JC, Overton KG, Miner JR. Lactate and pH evaluation in exhausted humans with prolonged TASER X26 exposure or continued exertion. Forensic Sci Int. Jun 16 2009. Date added to index 6/29/2009.
8. Ho J., Dawes DM, Ryan F, Lundin E, Overton K, Zeiders A, Miner J, Catecholamines in Simulated Arrest Scenarios. ACEM Winter Symposium. Darwin Northern Territory, Australia; 2009. Date added to index 6/25/2009. [[
9. Wozniak J, Uggen C. Real Men Use Nonlethals. Feminist Criminology. 2009;4(No. 3):275?293. Date added to index 6/24/2009.
10. J.D. Ho, D.M. Dawes, W.G. Heegaard and J.R. Miner, “Human research review of the TASER® electronic control device,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc., vol. 2009, in press, 2009. Date added to index 6/22/09.
11. J. Sweeney, “Theoretical comparisons of nerve and muscle activation by neuromuscular incapacitation devices,”Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc., vol. 2009, in press, 2009. . Date added to index 6/22/09.
12. D. Panescu, M.W. Kroll, R.A. Stratbucker, “Medical safety of TASER conducted energy weapon in a hybrid 3?point deployment mode,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc., vol. 2009, in press, 2009. . Date added to index 6/22/09.
13. M.W. Kroll, D. Panescu, M. Carver, R.M. Kroll and A.F. Hinz, “Cardiac effects of varying pulse charge and polarity of TASER® conducted electrical weapons,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc., vol. 2009, in press, 2009. . Date added to index 6/22/09.
14. S.R. Vanga, M.W. Kroll, M. Carver, C. Swerdlow and D. Lakkireddy, “Cardiac capture and fibrillation by CEW: An electrophysiologist’s perspective,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc., vol. 2009, in press, 2009. Date added to index 6/22/09.
15. Chand M, Nash GF. Are TASER guns really safe. Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 1 Jun 2009 70(6):p. 314. Date added to index 6/18/2009.
16. AMA. Report 6 of the Council on Science and Public Health. Use of Tasers by Law Enforcement Agencies June 15, 2009. Date added to index 6/18/2009.
17. Sanford JM, Jacobs GJ, Roe EJ, Terndrup TE. Two patients subdued with a taser(R) device: cases and review of complications. J Emerg Med. Apr 23 2008. Date added to index 6/12/09.
18. Ho JD, Dawes DM, Heegaard WG, Calkins HG, Moscati RM, Miner JR. Absence of electrocardiographic change after prolonged application of a conducted electrical weapon in physically exhausted adults. J Emerg Med. May 12 2009. Date added to index 5/29/09.
19. Peters, John G. Training, Policy, Product Warnings and Science?Are They at Odds?. Corrections Managers’ Report. April/May 2009 1406.indd: 85?91. Date added to index 5/20/2009.
20. Swerdlow C, Fishbein M, Chaman L, Lakkireddy D, Tchou P. Presenting Rhythm in Sudden Deaths Temporally Proximate to Discharge of TASER Conducted Electrical Weapons. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. May 2009;16:1?13. Date added to index 5/19/2009.
21. Kroll M. Meta Analysis of Fibrillation Risk from TASER Conducted Electrical Weapons as a Function of Body Mass. Boston: Heart Rhythm Society;2009. Date added to index 5/19/2009.
22. Smith G. TASER in the UK: An Analysis of Trends and Use. 5th European Symposium on Non Lethal Weapons. Vol Ettlingen: Fraunhofer Instiut Chemishe Technologie; 2009. Date added to index 5/19/2009.
23. Ho J. Research Update on the TASER Electronic Control Device. 5th European Symposium on Non Lethal Weapons. Vol Ettlingen: Fraunhofer Instiut Chemishe Technologie; 2009. Date added to index 5/19/2009. [[
24. Strote J, Angelidis M. Injuries Associated With Law Enforcement Use Of Conducted Electrical Weapons. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Scientific Assembly. 2009. Date added to index 5/19/2009.
25. Bozeman W. ,Teacher E. Incidence And Outcomes Of Transcardiac TASER Probe Deployments. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Scientific Assembly. 2009. Date added to index 5/19/2009.
26. Hall C. When Conducted Energy Weapons Are Combined With Other Force Options: When Does It Happen And Is It Fatal?,. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Scientific Assembly. 2009. Date added to index 5/19/2009.
27. Hall C. Police Use Of Force, Injuries and Death: Prospective Evaluation Of Outcomes For All Police Use of Force/Restraint Including Conducted Energy Weapons In A Large Canadian City. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Scientific Assembly. 2009. Date added to index 5/19/2009.
28. Ho J, Dawes D, Cole J, et al. Effect of a Conducted Electrical Weapon Exposure on a Methamphetamine Intoxicated Animal Model. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Scientific Assembly. 2009. Date added to index 5/19/2009. [[
29. Smith G. TASER in the UK: An Analysis of Trends and Use. 5th European Symposium on Non Lethal Weapons. Vol Ettlingen: Fraunhofer Instiut Chemishe Technologie; 2009. Date added to index 5/12/09.
30. Ho J. Research Update on the TASER Electronic Control Device. 5th European Symposium on Non Lethal Weapons. Vol Ettlingen: Fraunhofer Instiut Chemishe Technologie; 2009. Date added to index 5/12/09. [[
31. Ho J, Heegaard W, Dawes D, Natarajan S, Reardon R, Miner J. Unexpected Arrest Related Deaths in America: 12 Months of Open Source Surveillance. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine. May 2009(2). Date added to index 5/12/09.
32. Schwarz ES. Successful resuscitation of a patient in asystole after a TASER injury using a hypothermia protocol. American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2009;27(4):515.e511? 515.e512. Date added to index May 11, 2009. 33. Ho J, Dawes D, Bultman L, Moscati R, Janchar T, Miner J. Prolonged TASER use on exhausted humans does not worsen markers of acidosis. American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2009;27(4):413?418. Date added to index May 11, 2009.
34. Karch, Steven B., “Are TASER Devices Really Dangerous”. Forensic Drug Abuse Advisor Vol. 21 (3) March 2009. Date added to index 5/6/2009.
35. Edited by Raymond M. Fish and Leslie A. Geddes, Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company, Inc. Electrical Injuries: Medical and Bioengineering Aspects, Second Edition, February 1, 2009. Chapter 42 is TASER Electronic Control Devices . Date added to index 3/18/2009.
36. Mark W. Kroll (Editor), Jeffrey D. Ho (Editor).TASER® Electronic Control Devices: Physiology, Pathology, and Law. Springer, March 16, 2009. Date added to index 3/18/2009.
37. Bui ETS, M; Wennberg R. Generalized tonic?clonic seizure after a taser shot to the head. CMAJ. 2009;180(6):625?626. Date added to index 3/17/2009.
38. Donald M. Dawes, MD; Jeffrey D. Ho, MD. Taser Wound Progression in Two Deployment Modes .Pathology/Biology. AAFS 2009. Date added to index 2/25/09.
39. Donald M. Dawes, MD; Jeffrey D. Ho, MD. Conducted Electrical Weapons?A Review of the Medical Literature. Pathology/Biology. AAFS 2009. Date added to index 2/25/09.
40. Ho, J.D., D.M. Dawes, and J.R. Miner. Multiple Simultaneous Exposures of the TASER X26 in Human Volunteers. 2009, CardioRythm, Hong Kong: Dept. of Emergency Medicine, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN Dept. of Emergency Medicine, Lompoc Valley Medical Center, Lompoc, CA. Date added to index 2/25/09.
41. Ho, J.D., et al., Can Prolonged TASER X26 Exposure or Continued Exertion Contribute to Sudden Cardiac Death Through Worsening Acidosis? 2009, CardioRythm, Hong Kong: Dept. of Emergency Medicine, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN Dept. of Emergency Medicine, Lompoc Valley Medical Center, Lompoc, CA. Date added to index 2/25/09.
42. Han JS, Chopra A, Carr D. Ophthalmic injuries from a TASER. CJEM. Jan 2009;11(1):90?93. Added to library 2/24/09.
43. Patrick Reilly J, Diamant AM, Comeaux J. Dosimetry considerations for electrical stun devices. Phys Med Biol. Mar 7 2009;54(5):1319?1335. Added to library 2/24/09.
44. Hall CA. Public risk from tasers: Unacceptably high or low enough to accept? CJEM. Jan 2009;11(1):84?86. Date added to the index 2?5?09.
45. Kenny JM, Bovbjerg VE, Heal CSC. Los Angeles Sheriff's Department's Use of M26 and X26 TASERs During the 1995?2004 Timeframe (Draft): Penn State Applied Research Laboratory; August 25 2008. Date added to Index 2/5/2009.
46. Ross Wolf, Tina Pressler, and Mark Winton. Campus Law Enforcement Use?of?Force and Conducted Energy Devices: A National?Level Exploratory Study of Perceptions and Practices Criminal Justice Review. 2009; 34(1): p. 29?43 Date added to Index 2/4/2009.
47. Kroll MW. Physiology and pathology of TASER electronic control devices. Journal ofForensic and Legal Medicine. 2009. Date added to index 1/30/2009
48. Ho JDM, Dawes D. M. MD, Miner J.R. MD. Human Cardiorespiratory and Acid/Base Effect of a Civilian Conducted Electrical Weapon: Hennepin County Medical Center;2009. Date added to index 1/29/09.
49. Dawes DM, Ho JD. Fortuitous Effect of TASER Shock Misleading. Ann Emerg Med. Feb 2009;53(2):286?287 Date added to index 1/27/09
50. Bozeman W, II WH, Heck J, Graham D, Martin B, Winslow J. Safety and Injury Profile of Conducted Electrical Weapons Used by Law Enforcement Officer Against Criminal Suspects. Annals of Emerg Med. 2009. Date added to index 1/19/2009
51. Cevik C, Otahbachi M, Miller E, Bagdure S, Nugent KM. Acute stress cardiomyopathy and deaths associated with electronic weapons. Int J Cardiol. Jan 12 2009. Date added to index 1/16/2009
52. Nimunkar AJ, Webster JG. Safety of pulsed electric devices. Physiol Meas. Jan 2009;30(1):101?114. Date added to index 1/6/09
53. Ho J, Heegaard W, Dawes D, Miner J. Introduction of a Electronic Control Device in a Hostpital Setting: Eight Months of Use: Hennipin County Medical Center Lompoc Valley Medical Center; Caribbean Emergency Medicine Congress 2009. Date added to index 1/5/09[[
54. Dawes D, Ho J, Miner J. The Neuro?Endocrine Effects of the TASER X26 Conducted Electrical Weapon Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN Lompoc Valley Medical Center, Lompoc, CA: Caribbean Emergency Medicine Congress 2009. Date added to index 1/5/09[[
55. Dawes D, Ho J, Reardon R, Miner J. The Physiologic Effects of Multiple Simultaneous Electronic Control Device Discharges Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN Lompoc Valley Medical Center, Lompoc, CA: Caribbean Emergency Medicine Congress 2009. Date added to index 1/5/09[[
56. Schwarz ES, Barra, Michael, Liao, Michael M. Successful resuscitation of a patient in asystole after a TASER injury using hypothermia protocol. 2008.
57. RCMP. RCMP Use of Conducted Energy Weapons (CEW) Final Report June 12, 2008. Date added to index 2/24/2009.
58. Wu JY, Sun H, O'Rourke AP, et al. Taser blunt probe dart?to?heart distance causing ventricular fibrillation in pigs. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. Dec 2008;55(12):2768?2771. Date added to index 1/9/09.
59. Valentino DJ, Walter RJ, Dennis AJ, et al. Taser X26 discharges in swine: ventricular rhythm capture is dependent on discharge vector. J Trauma. Dec 2008;65(6):1478?1485; discussion 1485?1477. Date added to index 1/5/09 60. Jauchem JRP. Deaths in Custody: Are some due to electronic control devices (including TASER devices) or excited delirium? Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 2008. Date added to index 1?30?2009
61. Butler C. Police/Public Interaction:Arrests, Use of Force by Police, and Resulting Injuries to Subjects and Officers?A Description of Risk in One Major Canadian City. Calgary: Department of Emergency Medicine, Vancouver Island Health Authority;2008. Date added to index 2/2/2009.
62. Ho J, Dawes D, Cole J, Miner J. Human Physiologic Effects of a Civilian Conducted Electrical Weapon Application. Australasian College of Emergency Medicine. Vol Wellington New Zealand: Hennepin County Medical Center, Dept of Emergency Medicine Lompoc Valley Medical Center; 2008. Date added to index 12/3/08[[
63. Ho J, Dawes D, Miner J. Echocardiographic of Evaluation of TASER X26 Probe Deployment into the Chest of Human Volunteers. Australasian College of Emergency Medicine. Vol Wellington New Zealand: Hennepin County Medical Center, Dept of Emergency Medicine Lompoc Valley Medical Center; 2008. Date added to index 12/3/08 [[
64. Ho J, Dawes D, Miner J. The Neuro?Endocrine effects of the TASER X26 Conducted Electrical Weapon Australasian College of Emergency Medicine. Vol Wellington New Zealand: Hennepin County Medical Center, Dept of Emergency Medicine Lompoc Valley Medical Center; 2008. Date added to index 12/3/08[[
65. Eastman, A.L., et al., Conductive electrical devices: a prospective, population?based study of the medical safety of law enforcement use. J Trauma, 2008. 64(6): p. 1567?72 Date Added to Index 11/4/08
66. Dawes, D., J. Ho, and J. Miner, The Effect of a Cross?Chest Electronic Control Device Exposure on Breathing. 2008, ACEP 2008: American College of Emergency Physicians. Scientific Assembly: Hennepin County Medical Center Date Added to Index 11/4/08 [[
67. Ho, J., et al., Echocardiographic Determination of Cardiac Rhythm During Trans?Thoracic Wireless Conducted Electrical Weapon Exposure. 2008, American College of Emergency Physicians Scientific Assembly: Hennepin County Medical Center Date Added to Index 11/4/08 [[
68. Mesloh, C., M. Henych, and R. Wolf, Less Lethal Weapon Effectiveness, Use of Force, and Suspect & Officer Injuries: A Five?Year Analysis. 2008, National Institute of Justice Date Added to Index 11/4/08
69. Wu J?Y, Sun H, Oapos, et al. Taser Dart?to?Heart Distance That Causes Ventricular Fibrillation in Pigs. IEEE. 2007;TBME?00249?2007?R3. Date Added to Index 10/6/2008
70. Mangus B, Shen L, Helmer S, Maher J, Smith R. Taser and Taser associated injuries:a case series. Am Surg. 2008;74 (9):862?865. Date added to Index 10/6/2008
71. Dawes, D, Ho J, Miner J. Echocardiography Evaluation of a Long Range Electronic Control Device (ECD) in Human Volunteers. Hennepin County Medical Center: European Society of Emergency Medicine Scientific Assembly, Munich Germany Sept 2008 Date added to Index 9/15/08 [[
72. Ho J, Dawes, D, Miner J. Serum Biomarker Effect of Prolonged TASER XREP Device Exposure. Hennepin County Medical Center: European Society of Emergency Medicine Scientific Assembly, Munich Germany Sept 2008 Date added to Index 9/15/08 [[
73. Headquarters POGatETaPN. Operational Evaluation of the New Zealand [TASER ECDs] Trial: New Zealand Police; Febuary 2008 Date added to Index 9/10/08
74. Ho J, Dawes D, Reardon R, Moscati R, Gardner R, Miner J. Cardiac and Diaphragm Echo
75. Evaluation During TASER Device Drive Stun. Hennepin County Medical Center: National
76. Association of Medical Examiners; Sept 2008. Date added to Index 9/10/08 [[
77. Ho J, Dawes D, Miner J. Serum Biomarker Effect of Prolonged TASER XREP Device
78. Exposure. Hennepin County Medical Center: National Association of Medical Examiners; Sept 2008. Date added to Index 9/10/08 [[
79. Dawes D, Ho J, Lundin E, Olsen J, Miner J. The Effect of the eXtended Range Electronic
80. Projectile (XREP) on Breathing. Hennepin County Medical Center: National Association of Medical Examiners; 2008. Date added to Index 9/10/08 [[
81. Ho JD, Dawes DM, Reardon RF, Lapine AL, Dolan BJ, Lundin EJ, et al. Echocardiographic
82. Evaluation of a TASER?X26 Application in the Ideal Human Cardiac Axis. Acad Emerg Med 2008 Date added to Index 9/10/08 [[
83. Ready J, White MD, Fisher C. Shock Value: A Comparative Analysis of News Reports and Official Police Records on TASER Deployments Policing. 2008;31(1):148?170 Date added to Index 8/25/08
84. Panescu D, Kroll M, Stratbucker R. Theoretical Possibility of Ventricular Fibrillation During Use of TASER Neuromuscular Incapacitation Devices. 30th Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference: St Jude Medical; 2008. Date Added to Index 8/25/08
85. Sloane CM, Chan TC, Levine SD, Dunford JV, Neuman T, Vilke GM. Serum troponin I measurement of subjects exposed to the Taser X?26. J Emerg Med. Jul 2008;35(1):29?32. Date added to index 8/21/08
86. Ho JD, Dawes DM, Reardon RF, Lapine AL, Dolan BJ, Lundin EJ, et al. Echocardiographic Evaluation of a TASER?X26 Application in the Ideal Human Cardiac Axis. Acad Emerg Med 2008 Date added to index 8/17/08 [[
87. Mukherjee A. TASER's (letter of review). July 2 CMAJ 2008. Date added to index 8/17/08
88. Kroll M. TASER Electronic Control Devices: Review of a Review. CMAJ. July 2 2008. Date added to index 7/3/08. [[
89. Bozeman, W. (2008). Safety and Epidemiology of Conducted Electrical Weapons (CEWs).
90. Braidwood Commission Vancouver British Columbia. Date added to index 6/27/08.
91. Sloan, C. (2008). UCSD CED Related Studies. Braidwood Commission Vancouver British
92. Columbia. Date added to index 6/27/08.
93. Swerdlow, C. (2008). Presenting Rhythm in Sudden Deaths After Use of TASER®. Conducted Energy Devices. Braidwood Commission Vancouver British Columbia. Date added to index 7/14/08.
94. Kroll, M., et. al. (2008). Correspondence: Sensitive Swine and TASER Electronic Control
95. Devices. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. Date added to index 6/27/08. [[
96. Breitkreuz, M.P., G. Chair. (June 18, 2008) Study of the Conductive Energy
97. Weapon–TASER®. Report of the Standing Committee on Public Safety and National
98. Security. House of Commons, Canada, 39th Parliament, 2nd Session. Date added to index 6/27/08.
99. Kennedy, P. (June 12, 2008) RCMP Use of Conducted Energy Weapon (CEW). Final
100. Report. Including Recommendations for Immediate Implementation. Commission for
101. Public Complaints Against Canadian Mounted Police. Date added to index 6/27/08.
102. Panescu, D. (2008). Estimation of TASER Current Flow and Effects on Human Body. Braidwood Commission Vancouver British Columbia. Date added to index 6/26/08.
103. Office of Justice Programs (2008). Study of Deaths Following Electro Muscular Disruption: Interim Report, US Dept of Justice. Date added to index 6/23/08.
104. Herthog, M. K. (2008). TASER Policy, United State Air Force. Date added to index 6/23/08.
105. Dawes, D., J. Ho, et al. (2008). The Effect of Cross Chest Electronic Control Device Exposure on Breathing. Hennepin County Medical Center, Australian College of Emergence Medicine Winter Symposium. Date added to index 6/23/08. [[
106. Dawes, D., J. Ho, et al. (2008). The Effect of the eXtended Range Electronic Projectile (XREP) on Breathing. Hennepin County Medical Center, Australian College of Emergence Medicine Winter Symposium. Date added to index 6/23/08. [[
107. Ho, J., D. Dawes, et al. (2008). Echocardiographic Determination of Cardiac Rhythm During Trans?Thoracic Wireless Conducted Electrical Weapon Exposure. Hennepin County Medical Center, Australian College of Emergence Medicine Winter Symposium. Date added to index 6/23/08. [[
108. Ho, J., D. Dawes, et al. (2008). Cardiac and Diaphragm ECHO Evaluation during TASER Device Drive Stun, Australian College of Emergence Medicine Winter Symposium. Date added to index 6/23/08. [[
109. Ho, J. D., D. M. Dawes, et al. (2008). Echocardiographic Evaluation of Human Transcutaneous TASER® Application Along the Cardiac Axis. Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, Lompoc District Hospital, Lompoc, CA, Cardiostim 2008.[[ Date added to index 5/18/08.
110. Swerdlow, C., M. W. Kroll, et al. (2008). Presenting Rhythm in Sudden Custodial Deaths After Use of TASER® Electronic Control Device. Cedars?Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN San Marcos Police Department, San Marcos, TX University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, Cardiostim 2008 Nice France. Date added to index 5/18/08.
111. Rostker, B. D., L. M. Hanser, et al. (2008). Evaluation of the New York City Police Department Firearm Training and Firearm?Discharge Review Process, RAND Center on Quality Policing. Date added to index 6/10/08.
112. Williams HE. TASER ELECTRONIC CONTROL DEVICES AND SUDDEN IN?CUSTODY DEATH: Separating Evidence from Conjecture C C Thomas 2008. Date added to index 5/27/08.
113. Ho JD, Dawes DM, Reardon RF, Lapine AL, Olsen JD, Dolan BJ, et al. Echocardiographic Evaluation of Human Transcutaneous TASER® Application Along the Cardiac Axis. In. Hennepin County Medical Center: Heart Rythm Society; 2008. Date added to index 5/18/08. [[
114. Swerdlow C, Kroll MW, Williams H, Biria M, Lakkireddy D, Tchou PJ. Presenting Rhythm in Sudden Custodial Deaths After Use of TASER® Electronic Control Device. In. Cedars?Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, San Marcos Police Department, San Marcos, TX, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH: Heart Rythm Society; 2008. Date added to index 5/18/08.
115. Lakkireddy DR, Biria M, Baryun E, Berenbom L, Pimentel R, Emert MP, et al. Can Electrical?Conductive Weapons (TASER®) alter the functional integrity of pacemakers and defibrillators and cause rapid myocardial capture? In. Heart Rythm Society: Mid America Cardiology @ University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, Southlake Regional Health Center, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2008. Date added to index 5/18/08.
116. Nanthakumar K, Masse S, Umapathy K, Dorian P, Sevaptsidis E, Waxman M. Cardiac stimulation with high voltage discharge from stun guns. Cmaj 2008. Date added to index 5/13/08.
117. Lakkireddy D, Wallick D, Verma A, et al. Cardiac effects of electrical stun guns: does position of barbs contact make a difference? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. Apr 2008;31(4):398?408. Date added to index 4/25/08.
118. Ho J, Lapine A, Joing S, Reardon R, Dawes D. Confirmation of respiration during trapezial conducted electrical weapon application. Acad Emerg Med. Apr 2008;15(4):398.[[ Date added to index 4/25/08.
119. Synyshyn S. A Briefing Note on the State of Tasers in Canada: A Select Review of Medical and Policy Review Literature: The Canadian Association of Police Boards; 2008 March 30.** Date added to index 4/28/08.
120. Sloan C, Vilke G. Viewpoint: 'Death by Tasercution' Rare. Emergency Medicine News; 2008. Date added to index 3/17/08.
121. Roberts JR. InFocus: The Medical Effects of TASERs. Emergency Medicine News; 2008. Date added to index 3/17/08.
122. Ho J. Viewpoint: Rhetoric v. Reality. Emergency Medicine News; 2008. Date added to index 3/17/08.
123. Vilke GM, Sloane C, Levine S, Neuman T, Castillo E, Chan TC. Twelve?lead electrocardiogram monitoring of subjects before and after voluntary exposure to the Taser X26. Am J Emerg Med. Jan 2008;26(1):1?4.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
124. Sloane CM, Chan TC, Vilke GM. Thoracic Spine Compression Fracture after TASER Activation. J Emerg Med. Jan 9 2008. Date added to index 1/21/08.
125. Mesloh, Wolf, Henych, Thompson. Less Lethal Weapons for Law Enforcement: A Performance?Based Analysis. Vol 18; 2008. Date added to index 1/21/08.
126. Ho JD, Dawes DM, Lapine AL, et al. PROLONGED TASER® “DRIVE STUN” EXPOSURE IN HUMANS DOES NOT CAUSE WORRISOME BIOMARKER CHANGES Hennepin County Medical Center: National Association of EMS Physicians; 2008.[[ Date added to index 1/21/08.
127. Smith MR, Kaminski, Robert J, Rojek, Jeffrey, Alpert, Geoffrey P, Mathis, Jason. The impact of conducted energy devices and other types of force and resistance on officer and suspect injuries. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management. 2007;30(No. 3):423?446. Date added to index 2/2/2009.
128. Lewis CPRCbA. Survey on the use of Taser International 21ft Cartridges April 2007 2007. Date added to index 2/24/09.
129. Kroll M, Luceri R, Calkins H. A very interesting case study involving a TASER Conducted Electrical Weapon (CEW) used on a patient with a pacemaker. Journal of Cardivascular Electrophysiology 2007;18(12):E29?E30. Date added to index 5/21/08.
130. Hughes E, Kennett M, Murray W, Werner J, Jenkins D. Electro?Muscular Disruption (EMD) bioeffects: A study of the Effects of Continuous Application of the TASER X26 Waveform on Swine: Penn State University Institute for Non?Lethal Defense Technologies; Nov 30 2007.** Date added to index 4/25/08.
131. Winslow JE, Bozeman WP, Fortner MC, Alson RL. Thoracic compression fractures as a result of shock from a conducted energy weapon: a case report. Ann Emerg Med. Nov 2007;50(5):584?586.** Date added to index 1/21/08.
132. Bozeman, III W, D G, B M, WE H, JJ H. Injury Profile of Electrical Conducted Energy Weapons American College of Emergency Physicians Research Forum: Wake Forest University Louisiana State University 2007.** Date added to index 1/21/08.
133. Ho JD, Dawes DM, Johnson MA, Lundin EJ, Miner JR. Impact of conducted electrical weapons in a mentally ill population: a brief report. Am J Emerg Med. Sep 2007;25(7):780?785.[[ Date added to index 12/27/07.
134. Dawes D, Ho J. Excited Delirium, Police Physicians Section Track. 114th Annual IACP Conference: International Association of Chiefs of Police; 2007.[[ Date added to index 12/27/07.
135. Ho JD, Dawes DM, Johnson MA, Lundin EJ, Miner JR. Impact of conducted electrical weapons in a mentally ill population: a brief report. Am J Emerg Med. Sep 2007;25(7):780?785.[[ Date added to index 12/27/07.
136. Dawes DM, Ho J, Johnson M, Miner J, Lundin E. Breathing Respiratory Parameters, Venous Gases, and Chemistries With Exposure To a New Wireless Projectile Conducted Electrical Weapon Lompoc District Hospital, Lompoc, CA, USA. Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA. TASER International, Scottsdale, AZ, USA: Fourth Mediterranean Emergency Medicine Congress (MEMC IV); 2007.[[ Date added to index 12/27/07.
137. Dawes D, Ho J, Johnson M, Miner J. 15?Second Conducted Electrical Weapon Application Does Not Impair Basic Respiratory Parameters, Venous Blood Gases, Or Blood Chemistries Fourth Mediterranean Emergency Medicine Congress 2007. Date added to index 12/27/07.
138. Dawes D, Ho J, Johnson M, Miner J. THE Nuroendocrine Effects Of The TASER X26 Conducted Electrical Weapon As Compared To Oleoresin Capsicum Fourth Mediterranean Emergency Medicine Congress 2007.[[ Date added to index 12/27/07.
139. Ho J, Dawes D, Calkins H, Johnson M. Absence of Electrocardiographic Change Following Prolonged Application of a Conducted Electrical Weapon in Physically Exhausted Adults Fourth Mediterranean Emergency Medicine Congress 2007.[[ Date added to index 12/27/07.
140. Ho J, Reardon R, Dawes D, Johnson M, Miner J. Ultrasound Measurement of Cardiac Activity during Conducted Electrical Weapon Application in Exercising Adults. Fourth Mediterranean Emergency Medicine Congress 2007Vilke GM, Sloane CM, Bouton KD, et al. Physiological Effects of a Conducted Electrical Weapon on Human Subjects. Ann Emerg Med. Aug 23 2007.[[ Date added to index 12/27/07.
141. Lakkireddy D, Khasnis A, Antenacci J, et al. Do electrical stun guns (TASER?X26(R)) affect the functional integrity of implantable pacemakers and defibrillators? Europace. May 9 2007. Date added to index 12/27/07.
142. Jauchem JR, Cook MC, Beason CW. Blood factors of Sus scrofa following a series of three TASER((R)) electronic control device exposures. Forensic Sci Int. Jul 12 2007.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
143. Panescu D. Numerical Estimation of TASER CEW Current Flow and Effects on Human Body. Bioelectromagnetics Society 29th Annual Meeting Kanazawa, Japan: St. Jude Medical; 2007. Date added to index 12/27/07.
144. Vilke G, Sloane C, Levine S, Neuman T, Castillo E, Chan T. Does the Taser Cause Electrical Changes in Twelve Lead ECG Monitoring of Human Subjects; 2007.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
145. Vilke G, Sloane C, Levine S, Neuman T, Castillo E, Chan T. Does the Taser Cause Electrical Changes in Twelve Lead ECG Monitoring of Human Subjects. Acad Emerg Med 2007;14(5):104.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
146. Vilke G, Sloane C, Bouton K, et al.Physiological Effects of a Five Second TASER Exposure. 2007.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
147. Vilke G, Sloane C, Bouton K, et al. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Effects of the Taser on Human Subjects. Acad Emerg Med 2007;14(5):104?105.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
148. Valentino D, Walter R, Dennis A, et al. TASER Discharges Capture Cardiac Rhythm in a Swine Model. Acad Emerg Med. 2007;14(5):104. Date added to index 12/27/07.
149. Sloane C, Vilke G, Chan T, Levine S, Dunford J. Serum Troponin I Measurement of Subjects Exposed to the Taser X?26. University of California, San Diego; 2007.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
150. Sloane C, Vilke G, Chan T, Levine S, Dunford J. Serum Troponin I Measurement of Subjects Exposed to the Taser X?26. Acad Emerg Med 2007;14(5):103?104.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
151. Moscati R, Ho J, Dawes D, et al. Physiologic Effects of Prolonged Conducted Electrical Weapon Discharge on Intoxicated Adults. Acad Emerg Med 2007;14(5):63?64.[[ Date added to index 12/27/07.
152. Lakkireddy DR, Wallick D, Antenacci JA, et al. Do Electrical Stun Guns (TASERX26®) Affect the Functional Integrity of Implantable Pacemakers and Defibrillators? Heart Rhythm Society Conference Denver, CO; 2007. Date added to index 12/27/07.
153. Lakkireddy DR, Vacek J, Wallick D, Kowalewski, William, , et al. Effect of Varying Dart Separation along the Cardiac Axis on Ventricular Arrhythmia Induction during TASER Application. Heart Rhythm Society Conference Denver. CO: Heart Rhythm Society; 2007. Date added to index 12/27/07.
154. Kroll MW, Panescu,Dorin, Ho JD, Luceri, Efimov, Igor R, Calkins,Hugh, Tchou,Patrick J. Potential Errors in Autopsy Reports of Custodial Deaths Temporally Associated With Electronic Control Devices: A Cardiovascular Perspective. American Academy of Forensic Science Annual Conference, San Antonio, Texas; 2007.[[ Date added to index 12/27/07.
155. Ho JD, Dawes DM, Bultman LL, et al. Respiratory effect of prolonged electrical weapon application on human volunteers. Acad Emerg Med. Mar 2007;14(3):197?201.[[ Date added to index 12/27/07.
156. Ho JD, Dawes D, Johnson M. The State of Current Human Research and Electronic Control Devices (ECDs). Stadthalle Ettlingen, Germany: 4th European Symposium on Non?Lethal Weapons; May 21?23 2007.[[ Date added to index 12/27/07.
157. Ho J, Dawes D, Calkins H, Johnson M. Absence of Electrocardiographic Change Following Prolonged Application of a Conducted Electrical Weapon in Physically Exhausted Adults. Hennepin County Medical Center; 2007.[[ Date added to index 12/27/07.
158. Ho J, Dawes D, Calkins H, Johnson M. Absence of Electrocardiographic Change Following Prolonged Application of a Conducted Electrical Weapon in Physically Exhausted Adults. Acad Emerg Med 2007;14(5):128?129.[[ Date added to index 12/27/07.
159. Ho J, Dawes D, Bultman L, et al. Physiologic Effects of Prolonged Conducted Electrical Weapon Discharge on Acidotic Adults. Hennepin County Medical Center; 2007.[[ Date added to index 12/27/07.
160. Ho J, Dawes D, Bultman L, et al. Physiologic Effects of Prolonged Conducted Electrical Weapon Discharge on Acidotic Adults. Acad Emerg Med 2007;14(5):63.[[ Date added to index 12/27/07.
161. Chan T, Sloane C, Neuman T, et al. The Impact of the Taser Weapon on Respiratory And Ventilatory Function in Human Subjects? . University of California San Diego; 2007.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
162. Chan T, Sloane C, Neuman T, et al. The Impact of the Taser Weapon on Respiratory And Ventilatory Function in Human Subjects? Acad Emerg Med 2007;Volume 14, 5 Supplement 1 191?192.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
163. Branch HOSD. Supplement to HOSDB Evaluations of Taser Devices A collection of medical evidence and other source material. Sandridge St. Albans: Home Office Scientific Development Branch; 2007.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
164. Panescu D, Kroll MW, Efimov IR, Sweeney JD. Finite Element Modeling of Electric Field Effects of TASER Devices on Nerve and Muscle. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2006;1:1277?1279. Date added to index 6/4/2009.
165. Will J WJ?Y, O’Rourke A, Huebner S, Webster G CAN TASERS® DIRECTLY CAUSE VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION? . University of Wisconsin?Madison; 2006. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
166. Webster JG. Electromuscular Incapacitating Devices. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin?Madison; 2006. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
167. Webster J, Will JA, Sun, H, Wu J?Y, O'rourke, AP, Huebner, SM Rahko, PS. Can Tasers® directly cause ventricular fibrillation? Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin/Dept. Biomedical Engineering; 2006. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
168. Sun H, Abdallah J?YWR, Webster JG. Electromuscular Incapacitating Device Safety. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin?Madison/Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; 2006. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
169. Strote JH, Range Hutson TASER use in Restraint Related Deaths. Prehostpital Emergency Care Vol 10; 2006. Date added to index 12/27/07.
170. Strote J, Range Hutson H. Taser use in restraint?related deaths. Prehosp Emerg Care. Oct?Dec 2006;10(4):447?450. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
171. Peters JG. Sudden Death, “Excited” Delirium, and Issues of Force. Police and Security News Vol 22; 2006. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
172. Nanthakumar K, Billingsley IM, Masse S, et al. Cardiac electrophysiological consequences of neuromuscular incapacitating device discharges. J Am Coll Cardiol. Aug 15 2006;48(4):798?804. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
173. Munetz MR, Fitzgerald A, Woody M. Police use of the taser with people with mental illness in crisis. Psychiatr Serv. Jun 2006;57(6):883. Date added to index 12/27/07.
174. McDaniel W, Stratbucker, Robert Testing the Cardiac Rhythm Safety of the Thoracic Application of TASER Devices: University of Missouri, MO, TASER International, Scottsdale, AZ; 2006.[[ Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
175. Marine JE. Stun guns: a new source of electromagnetic interference for implanted cardiac devices. Heart Rhythm. Mar 2006;3(3):342?344. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
176. Lutes M. Focus On: Management of TASER Injuries. American College of Emergency Physicians 2006. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
177. Lipley N. Set to stun. Emerg Nurse. Sep 2006;14(5):5. Date added to index 12/27/07.
178. Levine Saul L, Christian, Chan, Thedore, Vilke, Gary. Cardiac Monitoring of Subjects Exsposed to the TASER. San Diego, California: University of California San Diego Dept of Emergency Medicine; 2006.** Date added to index before 7/05.
179. Lakkireddy D, Wallick D, Ryschon K, et al. Effects of cocaine intoxication on the threshold for stun gun induction of ventricular fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol. Aug 15 2006;48(4):805?811. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
180. Jenkinson E, Neeson C, Bleetman A. The relative risk of police use?of?force options: evaluating the potential for deployment of electronic weaponry. J Clin Forensic Med. Jul 2006;13(5):229?241.** Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
181. Jauchem JR, Sherry CJ, Fines DA, Cook MC. Acidosis, lactate, electrolytes, muscle enzymes, and other factors in the blood of Sus scrofa following repeated TASER exposures. Forensic Sci Int. Aug 10 2006;161(1):20?30.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
182. Ho JD, Miner JR, Lakireddy DR, Bultman LL, Heegaard WG. Cardiovascular and physiologic effects of conducted electrical weapon discharge in resting adults. Acad Emerg Med. Jun 2006;13(6):589?595.[[ Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
183. Ho JD, Luceri, Richard , Lakireddy, Danunjaya R, Dawes, Donald M. Absence Of Electrocardiographic Effects Following Taser® Device Application In Human Volunteers. Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, Holy Cross Hospital, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, Cleveland Clinic and Hospital, Cleveland, OH. Lompoc District Hospital, Lompoc, CA; 2006.[[ Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
184. Ho J, Dawes D, Thacker J, Lundin E, Johnson M. Beneficial Impact of Conducted Electrical Weapons in the Mentally Ill Population. Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN; 2006.[[ Date added to index 12/27/07.
185. Haegeli LM, Sterns LD, Adam DC, Leather RA. Effect of a Taser shot to the chest of a patient with an implantable defibrillator. Heart Rhythm. Mar 2006;3(3):339?341. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
186. Erwin C, Philibert R. Shocking Treatment: The Use of Tasers in Psychiatric Care. The Journal of Law, Medicine Ethics. Mar1 2006;34(1). Date added to index 12/27/07.
187. Davison N LN. Bradford Non?Lethal Weapons Research Project Centre for Conflict Resolution Department of Peace Studies March 2006. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
188. Chen SL, Richard CK, Murthy RC, Lauer AK. Perforating ocular injury by Taser. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. May?Jun 2006;34(4):378?380. Date added to index 12/27/07.
189. Bozeman WP. Unexpected Deaths in Police Custody. Florida SWAT Association 2006.** Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
190. Barnes DG, Jr., Winslow JE, III, Alson RL, Johnson J, Bozeman WP. Cardiac Effects of the Taser Conducted Energy Weapon: 340. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2006;48(4)(Supplement):S102.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
191. OPCC. Taser Technology Review Final Report. June 14 2005. Date added to index 2/24/09.
192. Whitehead S. A rational response to Taser strikes. Jems. May 2005;30(5):56?66. Date added to index 12/27/07.
193. Battershill P NB, Laur D, Panton K, Massine M, Anthony R. Taser technology review final report: Office of the Police Complaint Commissioner2005. Date added to index 2/24/09.
194. United States. Government Accountability Office., United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on National Security Emerging Threats and International Relations. Taser weapons : use of Tasers by selected law enforcement agencies : report to the chairman, Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats and International Relations, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Accountability Office; 2005.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
195. Transcript. TASER Hearing Open Meeting. State of Wisconsin TASER Hearing; 2005. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
196. Tintinalli JE, Kelen GD, Stapczynski JS. Emergency Medicine A Comprehensive Study Guide (6th edition). 2005. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
197. Sztajnkrycer MD. Cardiovascular Risk and the TASER: A Review of the Recent Literature. Tactical Emergency Medicine Vol 2; 2005. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
198. Strote J, Shane Hamman, Rich Campbell, John Pease,H. Range Hutson The Role of TASERs in Police Restraint?Related Death. 2005. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
199. Schmiederer B, Du Chesne A, Schmidt PF, Brinkmann B. Specific traces in stun gun deployment. Int J Legal Med. Jul 2005;119(4):207?212. Date added to index 7/05? 11/06.
200. Savage SS. After the Zap: TASER Injuries and How to Treat Them. National Commission on Correctional Health Care? Correct Care. Vol 19; 2005. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
201. Office of the Police Complaint Commissioner. TASER Technology Review Final Report Victoria, British Columbia June 14 2005.** Date added to index before 7/05.
202. Ng W, Chehade M. Taser penetrating ocular injury. Am J Ophthalmol. Apr 2005;139(4):713?715. Date added to index before 7/05.
203. Mesloh C. TASER and Less Lethal Weapons: An Exploratory Analysis of Deployment and Effectiveness: Law Enforcement Executive Forum 2005;**. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
204. McDaniel WC, Stratbucker RA, Nerheim M, Brewer JE. Cardiac safety of neuromuscular incapacitating defensive devices. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. Jan 2005;28 Suppl 1:S284?287.[[ Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
205. McBride DK, Natalie B. Tedder. Efficacy and Safety of Electrical Stun Devices. Arlington, VA: Potomac Institute for Policy Studies March 29 2005. Date added to index before 7/05.
206. Luceri R, Caulkins H, Kroll M. An Open Letter to the Law Enforcement Community. In: Consultants FA, ed; 2005.[[ Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
207. Levine SD, Sloane, Christian, Chan, Theodore, Vilke, Gary, Dunford,James Cardiac Monitoring of Subjects Exposed to the TASER. Academic Emergency Medicine 2005;12(5 Supplement 1).** Date added to index before 7/05.
208. Letter to the Editor. Ventricular Fibrillation after Stun?Gun Charge. September 2005;353:9. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
209. Letter to the Editor. Withdrawal of TASER Electroshock Devices :Too Much, Too Soon:. Annals of Emergency Medicine. September, 2005 2005;Volume 46( #3). Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
210. Laur D. Excited Delirium and its Correlation to Sudden and Unexpected Death Proximal to Restraint: A Review of the Current and Relevant Medical Literature Victoria Police Department; April 2005.** Date added to index before 7/05.
211. Kim PJ, Franklin WH. Ventricular fibrillation after stun?gun discharge. N Engl J Med. Sep 1 2005;353(9):958?959. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
212. International Association of Chiefs of Police I. Electro?Muscular Disruption Technology: Nine Step Strategy for Effective Deployment.: International Association of Chiefs of Police; 2005. Date added to index before 7/05.
213. Ho JD, Miner JR, Heegaard WG, Reardon RF. Deaths in police custody: An 8 month surveillance study: Hennepin County Medical Center; 2005.[[ Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
214. Ho JD. Sudden In Custody Deaths. Police Magazine 2005.[[ Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
215. Ho JD, Miner, James R., Heegaard, William G., Reardon, Robert F. Deaths in American Police Custody: A 12 Month Surveillance Study. University of Minnesota Emergency Medicine Program; 2005.[[ Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
216. United States Government Accountability Office. TASER WEAPONS: Use Of Tasers by Selected Law Enforcement Agencies Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office; May 2005.** Date added to index before 7/05.
217. Toxicolgy Excellence for Risk Assesment (TERA) AM, Patricia Nance, LINEA INC., General Dynamics, Clifford J Sherry, Metatec Associates, J Patrick Reily, Dr B JOn Klauenberg, Jonathan T Drummond LT Col USAF. Human Effectiveness and Risk Characterization of the Electromuscular Incapacitation Device – A Limited Analysis of the TASER Part II –Appendices: The Joint Non?Lethal Weapons Human Effects Center of Excellence; March 1 2005.** Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
218. Toxicolgy Excellence for Risk Assesment (TERA) AM, Patricia Nance, LINEA INC., General Dynamics, Clifford J Sherry, Metatec Associates, J Patrick Reily, Dr B JOn Klauenberg, Jonathan T Drummond LT Col USAF. Human Effectiveness and Risk Characterization of the Electromuscular Incapacitation Device – A Limited Analysis of the TASER Part I –Technical Report: The Joint Non?Lethal Weapons Human Effects Center of Excellence; March 1 2005.** Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
219. Force Science Research Center. FS News Readers Share Encounters With Naked Subjects. Force Science Research Center. Vol 16; 2005. Date added to index before 7/05.
220. Force Science Research Center. Naked suspects: No Laughing Matter. Force Science News Vol 16; 2005. Date added to index before 7/05.
221. Department of the Army. The U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine’s Position on whether TASER is safe to use on U.S. Army Military and Civilian Personnel during Training Febuary 2005.** Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
222. Dobrowolski ARNC, Moore SMSNRNCCENC. Less Lethal Weapons and Their Impact on Patient Care. SO ? Topics in Emergency Medicine January/March 2005;27(1):44?49.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
223. Dearing M, Lewis TJ. Foreign body lodged in distal phalanx of left index fingertaser dart. Emerg Radiol. Nov 2005;11(6):364?365. Date added to index 12/27/07.
224. Chief’s Counsel. Electronic Control weapons: Liability Issues. The Police Chief 2005. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
225. Bozeman WP. Withdrawal of taser electroshock devices: too much, too soon. Ann Emerg Med. Sep 2005;46(3):300?301.** Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
226. Wilkinson D. PSDB Further Evaluation of TASER Devices Hertfordshire, United Kingdom: United Kingdom Police Scientific Development Branch; 2005 19/05.** Date added to index before 7/05.
227. JANE's Police Review. "Shock Tactics". Janes Police Review; 2005:6. Date added to index before 7/05.
228. Cooper G. UK government’s assessment of the medical risks of M26 and X26 TASERs: Defence Science and Technology Laboratory October 2005; 28 October 2005**. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
229. Canadian Police Research Centre. Review of conducted energy devices. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Police Research Centre August 22, 2005.** Date added to index 7/05/11/06.
230. OPCC. TASER Technology Review & Interim Recommendations September 2004. Date added to index 2/24/09.
231. McManus J, et al. A Retrospective Case Series Describing the Injury Pattern of the Advanced TASER M26 in Multnomah County Oregon. Society of Academic Emergency Medicine. Vol Volume 11; 2004.** Date added to index before 7/05.
232. Jauchem J. Effectiveness & Health Effects of Electro?Muscular Incapacitating Devices: Air Force Research Laboratory 2004.** Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
233. Givens ML, Ayotte K, Manifold C. Needle thoracostomy: implications of computed tomography chest wall thickness. Acad Emerg Med. Feb 2004;11(2):211?213. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
234. Bleetman A, Steyn R, Lee C. Introduction of the Taser into British policing. Implications for UK emergency departments: an overview of electronic weaponry. Emerg Med J. Mar 2004;21(2):136?140.** Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
235. United Kingdom Defence Scientific Advisory Council. DSAC Sub?Committee on the Medical Implications of Less?lethal Weapons United Kingdom Defence Scientific Advisory Council; 27 July 2004.[[ Date added to index before 7/05.
236. Laur SD. Excited delrium and its correlation to sudden and unexpected death proximal to restraint: Canadian Police Research Centre; September 2004.** Date added to index before 7/05.
237. Hochmeister MeaMUoV. Findings and Expert Opinion on the Use of the TASER X26 Weapon as a Service Weapon: Medical University of Vienna; 08 November 2004.** Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
238. Commissioner. London Metropolitan Police Authority Review of TASER use: Metropolitan Police Authority; September 2004.** Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
239. Chairman DS?CoMIoLLW. United Kingdom DOMILL Report on TASER M26 Medical Implications: DSAC Sub?Committee on Medical Implications of Less lethal Weapons; March 2004.** Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
240. Battershill P, et al TASER Technology Review & Interim Recommendations: British Columbia Office of the Police Complaint Commissioner; September 2004.** Date added to index before 7/05.
241. Sherry C, Brown C, Beason C, Dayton T, Ross J. An Evaluation of the Electrical Properties and Bio?Behavioral Effects of Four Commercially Available Tasers and the JAYCOR Sticky Shocker: Storming Media Pentagon Reports;2003. Added to index 2/24/09.
242. Turner MS, Jumbelic ML. Stun gun injuries in the abuse and death of a sevenmonth? old infant. J Forensic Sci. Jan 2003;48(1):180?182. Date added to index 12/27/07.
243. Reisner AD. The electroconvulsive therapy controversy: evidence and ethics. Neuropsychol Rev. Dec 2003;13(4):199?219. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
244. Letter to the Editor. The (Not?So) Shocking News About Stun Guns. Journal of Emergency Medical Services 2003. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
245. Letter to the Editor. EMS Providers Express Concern over Stun Guns. Journal of the Emergency Medical Services; 2003. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
246. Kester D, Ijames S. Patterns of Injury, Recognition, and Treatment for Less Lethal Law Enforcement Techniques. SO ? Topics in Emergency Medicine Tactical Emergency Medical Support. October/November/December 2003;25(4):316?325.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
247. Knight D. Trade in the tools of torture. The U.S. government OKs the export of shackles and stun guns. US News World Rep. Nov 24 2003;135(18):30?31. Date added to index 12/27/07.
248. Heck JJ. Stun guns. The medical implications. Emerg Med Serv. Jul 2003;32(7):96? 97. Date added to index before 7/05.
249. Heck JJ. Stun Guns The Medical Implications. EMS; 2003:96?97. Date added to index before 7/05.
250. Anders S, Junge M, Schulz F, Puschel K. Cutaneous current marks due to a stun gun injury. J Forensic Sci. May 2003;48(3):640?642. Date added to index 12/27/07.
251. Zurich Switzerland Police Scientific Service. WD Statement Regarding TASER 07 July 2003.** Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
252. The Alfred Hospital. Advanced TASER X?26 Safety Analysis 29 June 2003.** Date added to index before 7/05.
253. The Alfred Hospital. Advanced TASER M?26 Safety Analysis The Alfred Hospital; 22 September 2003.** Date added to index before 7/05.
254. Bleetman A, Richard Steyn. The Advanced TASER: A Medical Review: University of Birmingham, UK; April 2003.** Date added to index before 7/05.
255. Hamilton A. Stun guns for everyone. Time. Feb 4 2002;159(5):50. Date added to index 12/27/07.
256. McDaniel WC. Dual TASER Discharge: University of Missouri 2001.[[ Date added to index 12/27/07.
257. Gould M. UK civil rights groups question safety of stun guns. Bmj. Aug 11 2001;323(7308):300.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
258. Fish RM, Geddes LA. Effects of stun guns and tasers. Lancet. Sep 1 2001;358(9283):687?688. Date added to index 12/27/07.
259. Bozeman WP. Medical Threat Assessment: The TASER M26 Less Lethal Weapon 2001.** Date added to index 12/27/07.
260. Ben Welch E, Gales BJ. Use of stun guns for venomous bites and stings: a review. Wilderness Environ Med. Summer 2001;12(2):111?117. Date added to index 12/27/07.
261. Banaschak S, Milbradt H, Humpert M, Roll P, Madea B. [Evidence for use of electroshock devices]. Arch Kriminol. Nov?Dec 2001;208(5?6):149?158. Date added to index 12/27/07.
262. Laur D, Victoria Police Service. TASER Technology Research Report: Canadian Police Research Centre;2000. Date added to index 2/24/09.
263. Harrison RG. ADVANCED TASER® M26 LESS LETHAL SYSTEM. In: TASER, ed. A review of the literature and conclusion. ed. Ottawa; 2000:6. Date added to index 12/27/07.
264. Hendry P. Personal Correspondance. In: TASER, ed. Opinion on the medical safety of the TASER in regard to patients with either pacemakers or implantable defibrillators. ed. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Heart Insti; 1999:1. Date added to index 12/27/07.
265. Karch SB, Stephens BG. Drug abusers who die during arrest or in custody. J R Soc Med. Mar 1999;92(3):110?113. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
266. Kenny JM, et al (PennState Applied Research Laboratory). Sticky Shocker Assessment Rockville, MD: PennState Applied Research Laboratory; July 29 1999.** Date added to index before 7/05.
267. Burdett?Smith P. Stun gun injury. J Accid Emerg Med. Nov 1997;14(6):402?404. Date added to index 12/27/07.
268. Tisdale JEea. Electrophysiological and Electrocardiographic Pharmacodynamics of Cocaine. Pharmacotherapy. 1996;16 (3):438?445. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
269. Tisdale JE, Shimoyama H, Sabbah HN, Webb CR. The effect of cocaine on Ventricular fibrillation threshold in the normal canine heart. Pharmacotherapy. May?Jun 1996;16(3):429?437. Date added to index before 7/05.
270. Pudiak CM, Bozarth MA. Cocaine fatalities increased by restraint stress. Life Sci. 1994;55(19):PL379?382. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
271. Patel F. Homicidal manual strangulation and multiple stun gun injuries. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. Sep 1993;14(3):271. Date added to index 12/27/07.
272. Fish R. Electric shock, Part III: Deliberately applied electric shocks and the treatment of electric injuries. J Emerg Med. Sep?Oct 1993;11(5):599?603. Date added to index 12/27/07.
273. Mehl LE. Electrical injury from Tasering and miscarriage. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. Feb 1992;71(2):118?123. Date added to index 12/27/07.
274. Ikeda N, Harada A, Suzuki T. Homicidal manual strangulation and multiple stungun injuries. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. Dec 1992;13(4):320?323. Date added to index 12/27/07.
275. Frechette A, Rimsza ME. Stun gun injury: a new presentation of the battered child syndrome. Pediatrics. May 1992;89(5 Pt 1):898?901. Date added to index 12/27/07.
276. Allen TB. Discussion of "Effects of the taser in fatalities involving police confrontation". J Forensic Sci. Jul 1992;37(4):956?958. Date added to index 12/27/07.
277. O'Brien DJ. Electronic weaponry??a question of safety. Ann Emerg Med. May 1991;20(5):583?587. Date added to index 12/27/07.
278. Kornblum RN, Reddy SK. Effects of the Taser in fatalities involving police confrontation. J Forensic Sci. Mar 1991;36(2):434?438. Date added to index before 7/05.
279. Roy OZ, Podgorski AS. Tests on a shocking device??the stun gun. Med Biol Eng Comput. Jul 1989;27(4):445?448. Date added to index 12/27/07.
280. Koscove E. The Taser: research, patients, and language (Tom Swift found). J Emerg Med. Jul?Aug 1988;6(4):343?344. Date added to index 12/27/07.
281. Ordog GJ, Wasserberger J, Schlater T, Balasubramanium S. Electronic gun (Taser) injuries. Ann Emerg Med. Jan 1987;16(1):73?78. Date added to index 7/05?11/06.
282. Koscove EM. Taser dart ingestion. J Emerg Med. Nov?Dec 1987;5(6):493?498. Date added to index 12/27/07.
283. Koscove E. Taser power. Ann Emerg Med. Oct 1987;16(10):1190. Date added to index 12/27/07.
284. Koscove EM. The Taser weapon: a new emergency medicine problem. Ann Emerg Med. Dec 1985;14(12):1205?1208. Date added to index 12/27/07.
285. Bernstein T. Evaluation of the Electric Shock Hazard for the NOVA XR 5000 Stun Gun: University of Wisconsin?Madison; January 22 1985. Date added to index before 7/05.
286. Zylich NP. TASER Evaluation and Analysis U.S. Government Memorandum ed: U.S. Product Safety Commission; 1976.** Date added to index before 7/05.
287. Fandey JZea. TASER TF?1, CP76?5 U.S. Product Safety Commission: Letter Office of the Medical Director; 1976.** Date added to index before 7/05.
288. Bernstein T. Letter to the Consumer Product Safety Commission. In: Commission CPS, ed. Personal correspondence ed: University of Wisconsin?Madison; 1976.** Date added to index before 7/05.
289. Jeanette Michael. Jurisdiction over the TASER Public Defender: U.S. Product Safety Commission, U.S. Government Memorandum; 1975.** Date added to index before 7/05.
290. Underwriters’ Laboratories I. Electric Shock as it Pertains to the Electric Fence: National Board of Fire Underwriters Bulletin of Research; December 1939; 1955. Date added to index before 7/05.

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